Synopsis of Clinical Oncology

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Synopsis of Clinical Oncology

Synopsis of Clinical Oncology

Synopsis of Clinical Oncology is the best book for all new students whos entering into oncology..let discuss something about cancer cancer research have revealed that human cancer is a multistep process involving acquired genetic mutations, each of which imparts a particular type of growth advantage to the cell and ultimately leads to the development of the malignant phenotype. The consequences of the mutations in the tumor cells include alterations in cell signaling pathways that result in uncontrolled cellular proliferation, insensitivity to growth inhibition signals, resistance to apoptosis, development of cellular immortality, angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastasis (1). Here we address the fundamental principles of cancer genetics, cell cycle control, and invasion and metastasis.

Synopsis of Clinical Oncology to limitations in space and given the complexity of the subject matter and the many excellent textbooks and review articles that are available for each topic, we will highlight the most important principles. A list of historical and current references will be provided for the interested reader.

CANCER GENETICS

The idea that human cancer is a result of multiple mutations in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence of a cell has developed during the past 30 years. A mutation is any change in the primary nucleotide sequence of DNA, and the mutation may or may not have a functional consequence. The field of cancer genetics emerged to study the different types of mutations well as the consequences of the mutations in tumor
cells. Bert Vogelstein and Ken Kinzler provide the most thoroughly studied example of a human cancer that illustrates this multistep process.



Synopsis of Clinical Oncology research of families with rare inherited colon cancer syndromes demonstrated that multiple somatic mutation events (5 to 10) are required for the progression from normal colonic epithelium to thed evelopment of carcinoma in situ. The mechanisms through which the mutations in the DNA occur are varied and include imprecise DNA repair processes, random replication errors, splicing errors, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) processing errors, exposure to carcinogens such as radiation orc hemotherapy, or incorporation of exogenous DNA into the genome such as viral DNA or RNA .

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