Gastrointestinal microbiology PDF
Gastrointestinal microbiology PDF human gastrointestinal tract microorganisms, termed the “microbiota,” have beeninvestigated since the beginning of microbiological studies, when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the father of microbiology, investigated the microorganisms in his own stools. The human microbiota comprises trillions of microbes distributed in various niches
throughout the intestinal tract and is one of the most complex microbial ecosystems on earth. The host and its mic robiota have co-evolved together, and considering the staggering numbers and diversity, it is therefore not surprising that the microbiota exert a major influence on the host. The original term for the microbiota upon discovery was the
“flora” or “microflora,” literally translated as “small plants,” which has a botanical
connotation. These terms are still used widely today and internationally recognized. Nevertheless, it is considered more appropriate to use the term microbiota, i.e., “small life” taking into account that the human microbiota is comprised of bacteria, archaea,
bacteriophage, a smaller number of yeasts, and some protozoa; hence, this term is mainly used throughout this book. With this book, we have made an attempt to cover all issues associated with the gastrointestinal microbiota, from health to disease and from sampling to identification. Although various books have addressed the intestinal microbiota, thishas mainly been from the perspective of disease or nutrition, while the microbiota itselfhas rarely been the focus. This current book aims to fill this gap and provide the reader
with a comprehensive overview of all aspects related to the gastrointestinal microbiota. There have been major scientific advances especially in human intestinal microbiology in the recent past, which are also covered by the contributions.Early studies were limited to description of the culturable microbes, which as we now realize, made up only a minority of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota.
Gastrointestinal microbiology PDF to the development of molecular biological techniques over the last decade, microbes can now be detected and studied to a large extent, without the need for culturing. In the first chapter, Kaouther Ben Amor and Elaine Vaughan review the major achievements of recent times in determining the diversity of the microbiota using modern molecular techniques, based on 16S ribosomal RNA, as well as methods to evaluate their activity within the various niches. Research of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota, especially in the case of humans,is often restricted to fecal material. In fact, a range of other sampling techniques are available, which are presented by Ange`le Kerckhoffs and colleagues, to access the small
intestine, as well as noninvasive sampling methods that are routinely used in medical practice.