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CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF

CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF

CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF

CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF The upper limb of man is built for prehension. The hand is a grasping mechanism, with four fingers flexing against an opposed thumb. The hand is furthermore the main tactile organ, with a rich nerve supply, particularly of the flexor compartment (p. 22).
In grasping, the thumb is equal in functional value to the other four fingers; loss of the thumb is as disabling as loss of all four fingers. In order to be able to grasp in any position the forearm is provided with a range of 180° of pronation and supination, and at the elbow has a range of flexion and extension of like amount. In addition, very free mobility is provided at the shoulder joint, and this mobility is further increased by the mobility of the pectoral girdle through which the upper limb articulates with the axial skeleton.

CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF Although the upper limb is commonly called the arm, this term strictly refers to the upper part of the limb between the shoulder and elbow. Both the arm and the forearm (below the elbow) have anterior or flexor and posterior or extensor compartments.There are many similarities between the upper and lower limbs, but obviously it is difficult to compare the two until the anatomy of both is understood. For this reason, discussion of this topic is deferred until page 235 after both limbs have been described.

CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF In terms of comparative anatomy, the human scapula represents two bones that have become fused together; the (dorsal) scapula proper and the (ventral) coracoid. The epiphyseal line across the glenoid cavity is the line of fusion (Fig. 2.9). They are the counterparts of the ilium and ischium of the pelvic girdle. The counterpart of the pubis is a tiny piece of bone (precoracoid) that ossifies separately at the tip of the coracoid process; it takes no part in the formation of the shoulder joint. The clavicle, ossifying in membrane, is an added bone (it has no counterpart in the pelvic girdle) whose purpose is to act as a strut preventing medial movement of the scapula. The strong coracoclavicular ligament attaches the clavicle and scapula to each other, and the clavicle is anchored to the first costal cartilage by the costoclav icular ligament. Forces from the upper limb are trans mitted by the clavicle to the axial skeleton through these ligaments, and neither end of the clavicle normally transmits much force.

 

CHUMMY S.SINNATAMBY LASTS ANATOMY REGINAL AND APPLIED 12th EDITION PDF

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