Download Greenspain’s basic & clinical Endocrinology 10th Edition Ebook PDF
Download Greenspain’s basic & clinical Endocrinology 10th Edition Ebook PDF This represents the tenth edition of Greenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology-a bittersweet milestone in that it also marks the recent passing of Dr. Francis Greenspan, the originator and namesake of this textbook. Frank’s involvement with this textbook will be sorely missed in the years to come. As with each of the previous editions, the individual chapters have been revised and updated to contain the most current information in the field. Our contributors continue to provide comprehensive content in a highly readable format. Chapter 14 (Disorders of Sex Development) has been completely revised and we have added a new chapter dealing with Transgender Endocrinology (Chapter 23). We trust that you have found previous versions of this text useful and informative and that the current version will continue to serve as a valuable tool for the education of your trainees and management of your endocrine patients
Download Greenspain’s basic & clinical Endocrinology 10th Edition Ebook PDF Hormones vary widely in terms of their chemical composition. Specific examples include proteins (eg, adrenocorticotrophin), peptides (eg, vasopressin), monoamines (eg, norepinephrine), amino acid derivatives (eg, triiodothyronine), steroids (eg, cortisol), and lipids (eg, prostaglandins). Proteins can be glycosylated (eg, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and/or dimerized (eg, follicle-stimulating hormone) to generate full biological activity. In general, protein, peptide, monoamine, and lipophilic hormones tend to exert their effects primarily through protein receptors at the cell membrane, while thyroid hormone and steroids tend to operate in the cell nucleus. However, exceptions to these rules are being recognized (eg, triiodothyronine activates classic thyroid hormone receptors in the nuclear compartment and the trace amine receptor [TAR1] on the cell surface) and estradiol appears to activate both nuclear and plasma membrane receptors. It is likely that the biological “effect” of a given hormone reflects a composite of receptor activity located in several different cellular compartments.
Download Greenspain’s basic & clinical Endocrinology 10th Edition Ebook PDF Endocrine glands are traditionally defined as ductless glandular structures that release their hormonal secretions into the extracellular space where they can eventually access circulating plasma. Classic endocrine glands include organs like the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreatic islets, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is now clear that hormones can be secreted from nontraditional endocrine organs and play critical roles in the regulation of physiological homeostasis. Examples of the latter include the heart (natriuretic peptides), kidney (erythropoietin and renin), adipose tissue (leptin and adiponectin), bone (osteocalcin), and gut (cholecystokinin and incretins). Once in the circulation, hormones bind to receptors on target tissues to elicit their biological effects. Target tissues for some hormones (eg, glucocorticoids) are numerous, reflecting the ubiquitous distribution of their receptors, while those for other tissues have a more limited distribution (eg, androgen