Download Susanne Grässel CARTILAGE Volume 1: Physiology and Development ebook pdf
Download Susanne Grässel CARTILAGE Volume 1: Physiology and Development ebook pdf olume one of a book series comprised of three volumes is dedicated to provide an overview about physiology and biology of permanent cartilage tissue and its role as a template in development and skeletal growth.
Download Susanne Grässel CARTILAGE Volume 1: Physiology and Development ebook pdf The text is designed to be of use to multiple medical and basic science disciplines as orthopedics, rheumatology, and trauma surgery and all basic investigators work- ing in the field of cartilage and joint physiology and development.
Three types of cartilage (hyaline, elastic, and fibrous) have been characterized on the basis of histological criteria and mechanical properties. The most prevalent type is hyaline cartilage which is a visually uniform, translucent tissue found in the skel- eton of all vertebrates. Articular cartilage, the most familiar hyaline permanent car- tilage, forms the smooth gliding surface of joints, such as the knee and hip that permits locomotion in humans and animals. Injuries to this tissue and degradative diseases as osteoarthritis impair joint mobility and are a great challenge of modern regenerative medicine. Hyaline cartilage also comprises the growth plate, the tran- sient and temporary template required for endochondral bone formation in fetal development, skeletal growth, and repair processes, i.e., after fracture. In addition, hyaline cartilage occurs as a permanent structural tissue in costal cartilage and tra- cheal reinforcing rings.
Cartilage is a matrix-dominated tissue, and with regard to its abundance, the matrix is mainly composed of collagens and proteoglycans. These two main com- ponents form suprastructures interconnected by plenty of proteins that way forming a kind of alloy. Cartilage fibrils vary in their molecular organization, their width, and their orientation in the tissue in order to resist forces generated by external load. Proteoglycans, especially the lectican family, provide the required tissue elasticity and resilience by dissipating load. The interconnecting molecules, sometimes also referred to as adaptor proteins, are from a biochemical point of view mainly non- collagenous glycoproteins and small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans which closely regulate the assembly and connection of the fibrillar and extrafibrillar matri- ces. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 of this volume summarize information about the impact of proteoglycans, forming the extrafibrillar matrix, on cartilage physiology and integ- rity; the role of the different collagens in cartilage matrix homeostasis and forma- tion of fibrillar suprastructures; and the role of non-collagenous matrix adaptor proteins in growth factor binding, mediation of inflammatory and immune responses, and their use as biomarkers in cartilage-associated diseases.