Translational Toxicology and Therapeutics : Windows of Developmental Susceptibility in Reproduction and Cancer 1st Edition ( 2018 ) Ebook PDF

Translational Toxicology and Therapeutics :  Windows of Developmental Susceptibility in Reproduction and Cancer  1st Edition ( 2018 ) Ebook PDF

Translational Toxicology and Therapeutics : Windows of Developmental Susceptibility in Reproduction and Cancer 1st Edition ( 2018 ) Ebook PDFΒ Immune editing is an extrinsic mechanism of cancer suppression that initiates only after cellular transformation has occurred and intrinsic mechanisms of cancer sup- pression have failed [1]. The process of immune editing occurs in three phases: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. In the elimination phase, innate and adaptive immunity join forces to eliminate cancer cells before they become clinically appar- ent, rendering the host virtually cancer-free. In the equilibrium phase, cancer cells not eliminated in the elimination phase are prevented from proliferating by host immunity, which maintains the cancer cells in a state of functional dormancy.

Equilibrium is a function of adaptive immunity, which may restrain cancer cell growth in the host for a lifetime. In the escape phase, cancer cells once held in equi- librium may escape recognition by adaptive immunity due to insensitivity to immune effector mechanisms and induction of immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells that escape immune recognition proliferate and become clinically apparent. Therapies such as peptide vaccines have the potential to keep cancer cells in the elimination and/or equilibrium phase.

This review describes studies employing peptide-based cancer vaccines and pros- pects for improving their efficacy through the use of peptides with amino acid substi- tutions at anchor residues and heteroclitic analogs, multiple variance long peptides, whole protein and 15-mer overlapping peptides, multiple peptide epitopes from dif- ferent tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), class I and II hybrid peptide vaccines, pep- tide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs), adjuvants including toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists and cytokines, and combinations of peptide vaccines with various other therapies.

Translational Toxicology and Therapeutics : Windows of Developmental Susceptibility in Reproduction and Cancer 1st Edition ( 2018 ) Ebook PDF