NEPHROLOGY SECRETS FOURTH EDITION 2019 EBOOK PDF 1. The urine protein to creatinine (using a random urine specimen) ratio has been shown
to have a good correlation with the 24-hour urine protein determination.
2. The most common complication associated with a kidney biopsy is bleeding, though it is usually self-limited and rarely life threatening.
3. The differential diagnosis of AKI includes prerenal azotemia, obstructive nephropathy, and intrinsic forms of AKI.

4. Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a functional kidney failure that occurs in end-stage liver cirrhosis with ascites.
5. The pharmacological treatment for HRS is a combination of albumin and vasoconstrictors, but the definitive treatment is liver transplantation.
6. Due to the high incidence of drug-induced AKI, a thorough review of the medication list should be performed in a patient at risk for AKI.

7. Sepsis is an important cause of AKI in critically ill patients and is associated with high mortality rates.
8. Rapid (,3 hours after presentation) administration of appropriate antibiotics is associated with improved outcomes and fewer cases of sepsis-associated AKI.
9. Early and vigorous volume resuscitation of patients with rhabdomyolysis (even before
extrication in crush syndrome) is important for preventing AKI.

10. AKI secondary to rhabdomyolysis usually occurs with creatine kinase levels greater than 10,000 U/L.
11. Acute glomerulonephritis is a kidney injury syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of edema, new or worsening hypertension, and an active urinary sediment.
12. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapidloss of kidney function that often results in ESKD.

13. Primary nephrotic syndrome is caused by one of the following four diseases—minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis—and the diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical features, kidney biopsy findings, laboratory findings, and genetic testing.
14. Diuresis after relief of urinary obstruction may result from a physiologic excretion of water and urea, but can become pathologic. Patients should have electrolytes checked and replaced regularly, with free access to oral fluids. If necessary, the type and amountof intravenous fluids should be determined by serum and urinary electrolyte levels.
15. Struvite stones are due to infection with bacteria that contain the enzyme urease;Proteus mirabilis often has urease, Escherichia coli almost never has urease activity.
16. Uric acid stones are radiolucent on routine x-ray but are easily visualized by computed tomography scan.
17. Uric acid stones are almost always due to overly acidic urine and therefore the treatment
of choice is alkali salts, not allopurinol.


Copyrighted materials will not be posted here

please buy it from here