PRINCIPLES OF PULMONARY MEDICINE Seventh Edition 2019 PDF

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PRINCIPLES OF PULMONARY MEDICINE Seventh Edition 2019 PDF

PRINCIPLES   OF PULMONARY  MEDICINE Seventh Edition 2019 PDF

PRINCIPLES OF PULMONARY MEDICINE Seventh Edition 2019 PDF Beyond the terminal bronchioles, further divisions include the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. From the respiratory bronchioles on, these divisions form the portion of the lung involved in gas exchange and constitute the terminal respiratory unit or acinus. At this level, inhaled gas comes into contact with alveolar walls (septa), and pulmonary capillary blood loads O2 and unloads CO2 as it courses through the septa. The surface area for gas exchange provided by the alveoli is enormous. It is estimated that the adult human lung has on the order of 300 million alveoli, with a total surface area approximately the size of a tennis court. This vast surface area of gas in contact with alveolar walls is a highly efficient mechanism for O2 and CO2 transfer between alveolar spaces and pulmonary capillary blood.
The pulmonary circulation and blood within provide the other crucial requirement for gas exchange: a transportation system for O2 and CO2 to and from other body tissues and organs.

After blood arrives at the lungs via the pulmonary artery, it courses through a widely branching system of smaller pulmonary arteries and arterioles to the major locale for gas exchange, the pulmonary capillary network. The capillaries generally allow red blood cells to flow through in single file only, so that gas exchange between each cell and alveolar gas is facilitated. Upon completion of gas exchange and travel through the pulmonary capillary bed, the oxygenated blood flows through pulmonary venules and veins and arrives at the left side of the heart for pumping to the systemic circulation and distribution to the tissues.

Further details about the anatomy of airways Mechanical Aspects of the Lungs and Chest Wall The discussion of pulmonary physiology begins with an introduction to a few concepts  about the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, which have important
implications for assessment of pulmonary function and its derangement in disease  states.

PRINCIPLES OF PULMONARY MEDICINE Seventh Edition 2019 PDF

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